2 articles ago I started a little study by following thoughtbot’s trail maps. After Heroku and Git, I’ve picked HTML & CSS, and today I will write about the things I’ve learned from it.

I have skipped most resources in the “Beginning HTML & CSS” section because I nodded most bullet points in its “You should be able to” list. Except for “A Beginner’s Guide to HTML & CSS”: I like online guides because they are usually more up to date than (printed!) books. Here are some new things that I found/clarified:

  • article vs. section vs. div — I think I finally “got” what’s the difference between them: “Both the <article> and <section> elements contribute to a document’s structure and help to outline a document:
    • If the content is being grouped solely for styling purposes and doesn’t provide value to the outline of a document, use the <div> element.
    • If the content adds to the document outline and it can be independently redistributed or syndicated, use the <article> element.
    • If the content adds to the document outline and represents a thematic group of content, use the <section> element.”
  • path relativity — it turns out that the terms “relative” and “absolute” have a slightly different meaning in the context of links compared to file system paths. “Links pointing to other pages of the same website will have a relative path, which does not include the domain (.com, .org, .edu, etc.) in the href attribute value.”
  • inline elements can have vertical padding! — it doesn’t affect their position in the flow, but if the element has border or background, it is quite visible, and it may even have a good use-case, some day… :)
  • clarified box-sizing property — I knew what it is and how it affects the layout, I even knew how to google and copy/paste the right snippet to make things work right, but I never got too close to it to find what other kinds of box sizing there are.

For the “Intermediate HTML & CSS” section I have enjoyed diving into both diveintohtml5.info and “HTML5 for Web Designers.”

One notable idea I have found in both resources is how HTML evolves and how its specs are written: it’s not that someone thinks really hard and comes up with a thorough document on what tags should there be and how should they work. It’s more like one of the browser vendors tries something and depending on how much web developers like and use it, the other browser vendors come along and implement it too, and then W3C and WHATWG say: “Hmm, this thing seems to have caught up, let’s write a spec!” And this is useful because it helps align the browser vendors and align everyone’s understanding of that thing.

diveintohtml5.info gives the intro to canvas that kept me from falling asleep, and also lots of get-your-hands-dirty info in the chapter on video; same for geolocation and offline.

The “HTML5 for Web Designers” book also had something new for me:

  • although before you were not allowed to have block elements inside inline elements, you can do that in HTML5: specifically you can put block elements inside the <a> element without breaking it. If I think about it this is a pretty pragmatic decision: there were so many times when I wanted to have, for example, a header, an image, and a paragraph all linked to somewhere, and I had to link each of them separately.
  • a reasonable use-case for canvas: “The real power of canvas is that its contents can be updated at any moment, drawing new content based on the actions of the user. This ability to respond to user-triggered events makes it possible to create tools and games that would have previously required a plug-in technology such as Flash.”
  • the datalist attribute: “The new datalist element allows you to crossbreed a regular input element with a select element. Using the list attribute, you can associate a list of options with an input field”
  • there is a mark tag! — “a run of text in one document marked or highlighted for reference purposes, due to its relevance in another context.”
  • the concept of markup portability and sectioning content: “In HTML5, I don’t have to worry about which heading level to use. I just need to use sectioning content — an article element.”

Picking the HTML & CSS trail map I thought I would take it easily — I have started playing with HTML when IE3 came out, and we are good friends ever since. I still think that HTML with CSS are the most robust publishing and layout platform.

Although I thought it would be an easy trail to walk. And even if I have read most of the resources in the “Advanced HTML & CSS” section long before this, even I used to read specs on w3.org cover to cover, and followed ALA since recently, it wasn’t that easy of a walk.

While reviewing the notes for this article I realized that “build a fluid grid” still sounds scary to me. I know that part of it is that I have never needed to build/use one, and the fear will melt as I will get closer to it.

This trail ended up with a weird experience. At some point I felt a bit of anxiety: “I just can’t keep up with all these things.” It’s terrifying. But then I realized that that’s OK. Are there surprising new ways to solve problems for people and build useful things? Perfect! This is a sign that the world evolves, and this is a good thing.

UPDATE Jul 10 2021: One of my readers shared another link: https://www.websiteplanet.com/blog/html-guide-beginners/. — Thanks Alyn!